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Images with this color can be seen in rehabilitation centers, especially those for drug addiction and alcoholism.
Blue candles and images of the saint indicate wisdom, which is favored by students and those in education. It can also be used to petition for health.
Brown is used to invoke spirits from beyond while purple, like yellow, usually symbolizes health. The most prominent is November 1, when the believer Enriqueta Romero celebrates her at her historic Tepito shrine where the famous effigy is dressed as a bride.
According to Chesnut, the religion of Our Lady of Holy Death is "generally informal and unorganized". The one on Dr. Another public shrine is in a small park on Matamoros Street very close to Paseo de la Reforma. Andrew Chesnut has discovered that many botanicas in both Mexico and the U. Her image is a staple in esoterica shops. The establishment of the first public shrine to the image began to change how Santa Muerte was venerated.
The veneration has grown rapidly since then, and others have put their images on public display, as well. The shrine does not hold Catholic masses or occult rites, but people come here to pray and to leave offerings to the image. This statue of the saint features large quantities of jewelry on her neck and arms, which are pinned to her clothing.
It is surrounded by offerings left to it, including: For many, this Santa Muerte is the patron saint of Tepito.
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This Santa Muerte is dressed as a bride and wears hundreds of pieces of gold jewelry given by the faithful to show gratitude for favors received, or to ask for one.
About 5, faithful turn out to pray the rosary. For purification, the smoke of marijuana is used rather than incensewhich is traditionally used for purification by Catholics.
Food such as cake, chicken with molehot chocolate, coffee, and atole are served during the celebrations, which features performances by mariachis and marimba bands. Devotion to the image peaks during economic and social hardships, which tend to affect the working classes more. Santa Muerte tends to attract those in extremely difficult or hopeless situations but also appeals to smaller sectors of middle class professionals and even the affluent. Many followers of Santa Muerte live on the margins of the law or outside it entirely.
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Many street vendors, taxi drivers, vendors of counterfeit merchandisestreet people, prostitutespickpocketspetty drug traffickers and gang members who are part of the religion are not practicing Catholics or Protestants, but neither are they atheists. With the exception of some artists and politicians, some of whom perform rituals secretly, those in higher socioeconomic strata look upon the veneration with distaste as a form of superstition.
In the Mexican and U.
He continues to lead his sect from his prison, but it is unfeasible for Romo or anyone else to gain dominance over the Santa Muerte religion. Her faith is spreading rapidly and "organically" from town to town, so that is easy to become a preacher or messianic figure.
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Drug lords, like that of La Familia Cartel, take advantage of "gangster foot soldiers'" vulnerability and enforced religious obedience to establish a holy meaning to their cause that would keep their soldiers disciplined. Santa Muerte is a multifaceted saint, with various symbolic meanings and her devotees can call upon her a wide range of reasons. In herbal shops and markets one can find a plethora of Santa Muerte paraphernalia like the votive candles that have her image on the front and in a color representative of its purpose.
On the back of the candles are prayers associated with the color's meaning and may sometimes come with additional prayer cards. Some keep the full range of colored candles while others focus on one aspect of Santa Muerte's spirit.
Santa Muerte's image as satanic or evil has been derived from her association with drug trafficking and the dead bodies found at her altar, however, the specific colors for the candles indicate that Santa Muerte's devotees stem from many walks of life beyond crime, violence, and the drug trade. Santa Muerte is called upon for matters of the heart, health, money, wisdom, and justice.
There is the brown candle of wisdom, the white candle of gratitude and consecrationthe black candle for protection and vengeance, the red candle of love and passion, the gold candle for monetary affairs, the green candle for crime and justice, the purple candle for healing. It is the lowest selling candle due to its association with "black magic" and witchcraft. It is not regularly seen at devotional sitesand is usually kept and lit in the privacy of one's home. To avert from calling upon official Catholic saints for illegal purpose, drug trafficker will light Santa Muerte's black candle to ensure protection of shipment of drugs across the border.
As the drug war in Mexico escalates, Santa Muerte's veneration by drug bosses increases and her image is seen again and again in various drug houses. Ironically, the military and police officers that are employed to dismantle the White Lady's shrines make up a large portion of her devotees. Furthermore, even though her presence in the drug world is becoming routine, the sale of black candles pales in comparison to top selling white, red, and gold candles.
The red candle that symbolizes love is helpful in various situations having to do with love.
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Her initial main purpose was in that of love magic during the colonial era in Mexicowhich may have been derived from the love magic being brought over from Europe. Her origins are still unclear but it is possible that the image of the European Grim Reaper combined with the indigenous celebrations of death are at the root of La Flaca's existence, in so that the use of love magic in Europe and that of pre-Columbian times that was also merging during colonization may have established the saint as manipulator of love.
To be favored by the saint, one sometimes even has to be threatened. Common threats involve hunger or banishment to an uninhabited place until the favor is granted. When graces are granted, the saint will be rewarded and fed but never fully, in order to increase the chances of him soon being willing to grant another grace.
There are also intermediaries such as brujos and traditional healers curanderos who invoke San La Muerte's power on behalf of their clients, usually concealing the image from sight of their customers. In other cases San La Muerte is kept as a concealed household saint, extending his protection upon all family members with no distinction. A number of public altars that are devoted to San La Muerte can also be found.
Some of these altars host public festivities on 15 August as San La Muerte's saint's day. Since the Catholic Church evidently has assigned no day for veneration of a saint it does not recognize, the date is somewhat contested and in some cases his day is celebrated on 13 August.
Iconography[ edit ] Statue of San La Muerte in central Argentina with alcohol offerings in the background. The San La Muerte devotion is based on interactions between worshipers and the Saint Death represented by sculptures.
Individual sculptures are addressed as San La Muerte Because of the small size, such a statuette may be colloquially referred to as Santito, or'Small Saint'. The representation of San La Muerte varies according to the individual sculptor that has crafted him, however, the classic image is a human skeleton, standing, with simple, minimalistic features.
The skeleton usually carries a scythe, in some cases with drops of blood on the edge. The same image can be dressed mostly in black and red cloths. Other representations include standing skeletons without a scythe, sitting skeletons and skeletons in a coffin.
Increased powers are attributed to sculptures which are crafted from materials of significant origin, such as the last phalanx bone of the little finger, a bone from a dead baby, wood taken from a dead person's coffin, or a crucifix that belonged to someone recently deceased. Other more common raw materials include guaiac tree and cedar wood. If the sculpture is carved out of the bone of a Catholic man it only needs to be consecrated five times as the bone has already been consecrated twice.