Polishing Composition and Polishing Method Using the Same - FUJIMI INCORPORATED
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The water-soluble polymer contained in the polishing composition of the second aspect is preferably selected from a group consisting of a polysaccharide, a polycarboxylic acid, a polycarboxylic amide, a polycarboxylic ester, a polycarboxylate, a polysulfonic acid, and a vinyl polymer. In accordance with a third aspect of the present invention, a polishing method is provided in which a silicon material is polished using the polishing composition according to the above first or second aspect.
A polishing composition of the present embodiment is manufactured by mixing a nitrogen-containing compound and abrasive grains in water, together with a pH adjuster and a pH buffer if necessary, such that the pH falls within the range of 1 to 7. Therefore, the polishing composition contains a nitrogen-containing compound, abrasive grains, and water, and if necessary, a pH adjuster and a pH buffer. The polishing composition is used for polishing silicon material, that is, a simple substance of silicon such as silicon single crystal, amorphous silicon, and polysilicon and a silicon compound such as silicon nitride and silicon oxide.
More particularly, the polishing composition is used for polishing a silicon substrate such as a single crystal silicon substrate, or for polishing a film of a simple substance of silicon such as an amorphous silicon film or a polysilicon film formed on a silicon substrate, or a film of silicon compound such as a silicon nitride film or a silicon oxide film formed on a silicon substrate.
The film of silicon compound includes a low-dielectric-constant film of which the relative dielectric constant is 3 or lower.
Specific examples of nitrogen-containing compounds include amines, amides, imines, imides, ureas, ammoniums, quaternary ammoniums, amino acids, aminosulfonic acids, and aminophosphonic acids. Amines and amides are divided into primary types, secondary types, and tertiary types depending on the number of substituents on the nitrogen atom.
The primary amines include methylamine, ethylamine, butylamine, ethylenediamine, glycine, alanine, and valine. The secondary amines include piperazine, piperidine, morpholine, N-methylglycine. The tertiary amines include methylpiperidine, ethylpiperidine, methylpyrrolidine, N,N-dimethylacetamide, and N,N-diethylacetamide.
A nitrogen-containing compound that can be suitably contained in the polishing composition is a compound having a structure expressed by a formula 1: In the formula 1R1, R2, and R3 each represent an alkyl group with or without a characteristic group. Two of R1 to R3 may form a part of a heterocycle. Alternatively, two of R1 to R3 may be identical and form a part of a heterocycle with the remaining one.
Examples of the characteristic group include halogen, hydroxy, amino, imino, N-oxide, N-hydroxy, hydrazine, nitro, nitroso, azo, diazo, azido, oxy, epoxy, oxo, carbonyl, phenyl, phosphino, thio, S-oxide, and thioxy.
Modification of Carbon Nanotubes Surface Using Different Oxidizing Agents
Among compounds having a structure expressed by the formula 1specific examples of compounds in which two of R1 to R3 form a part of a heterocycle include piperidine groups and their analogous compounds such as methylpiperidine and ethylpiperidine, pyrrolidone groups and their analogous compounds such as methylpyrrolidine, pyrrole groups and their analogous compounds such as methylpyrrole, morpholine groups and their analogous compounds such as methylmorpholine, piperazine groups and their analogous compounds such as methylpiperazine and dimethylpiperazine, and hexamethylene tetramine and its analogous compounds.
Among compounds having a structure expressed by the formula 1specific examples of compounds in which two of R1 to R3 are identical and form a part of a heterocycle together with the remaining one include imidazole, pyrazole, triazole, tetrazone, thiazole, isothiazole, oxazole, isoxazole, pyridine, pyrazine, pyrimidine, pyridazine, and analogous compounds of these.
Among compounds having a structure expressed by the formula 1compounds having a structure expressed by a formula 2: R1 or R2 may form a part of a heterocycle together with R4.
Examples of the characteristic group are as shown above. When the polishing composition contains a compound having a structure expressed by the formula 2the content of the compound in the polishing composition is preferably about 0.
The reason why compounds having a structure expressed by the formula 2 are particularly suitable as the nitrogen-containing compound contained in the polishing composition is that these compounds are substantially neutral.
When the nitrogen-containing compound used is substantially neutral, the pH of the polishing composition is easily adjusted to 7 or lower without adding a large amount of acid. In contrast, when the nitrogen-containing compound used is strongly-alkaline, a large amount of acid needs to be added to adjust the pH of the polishing composition to 7 or lower in some cases.
Use of large amount of acid leads to aggregation of abrasive grains contained in the polishing composition. Among compounds having a structure expressed by the formula 1an amino acid type ampholytic surfactant and an amine type nonionic surfactant can also be suitably used as the nitrogen-containing compound contained in the polishing composition. Specific examples of amino acid type ampholytic surfactants include alkylamino monopropionic acid, alkylamino dipropionic acid, alkylamidosarcosine.
When the polishing composition contains an amino acid type ampholytic surfactant, the content of the surfactant in the polishing composition is preferably in the range of 0. When the polishing composition contains an amine type nonionic surfactant, the content of the surfactant in the polishing composition is preferably in the range of 0.
Other than compounds having a structure expressed by the formula 1a carboxybetaine type ampholytic surfactant, a sulfobetaine type ampholytic surfactant, an imidazoline type ampholytic surfactant, and an amine oxide type ampholytic surfactant can be suitably used as the nitrogen-containing compound contained in the polishing composition.
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Specific examples of carboxybetaine type ampholytic surfactants include alkyldimethylamino betaine acetate also known as alkylbetaine and alkylamidopropyl dimethylamino betaine acetate also known as alkylamidopropylbetaine. Specific examples of sulfobetaine type ampholytic surfactants include alkylhydroxysulfobetaine. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
In addition their physical and chemical properties were studied extensively [ 12 ]. However, researchers were directed their attention towards synthesis and purification of these materials as they can play important roles in wide range of applications in both industrial and environmental fields [ 34 ].
The main source of CNTs is the graphite which normally exists as sheets with hexagonal structure for carbon atoms. These sheets can be rolled up into cylindrical shape due to the presence of Van der Waals forces to produce tubular structure with nano scale radius with length of some micrometer scale.
Due to this structure CNTs can be considered as an elongated hallow fullerene [ 5 ]. Synergistic anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity of amoxicillin in combination with Emblica officinalis and Nymphae odorata extracts.
Modification of Carbon Nanotubes Surface Using Different Oxidizing Agents | OMICS International
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