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Main · Videos; Online youth bible study lessons on dating control pros and cons yahoo dating gun control pros and cons yahoo dating totally free dating site in. An advance-fee scam is a form of fraud and one of the most common types of confidence tricks. The modern scam is similar to the Spanish Prisoner scam which dates back to the late 18th century. In that con, businessmen were contacted by an individual allegedly trying to smuggle someone that is connected to a wealthy. Gun control advocates worry they will be undetectable, too. Pros and Cons to Buying Honda Motor Co Ltd (HMC) Stock The date and time of Winter Solstice, featured in a special Google Doodle Friday, vary by the year.
What They Do Chiropractors treat people by aligning their spine with a variety of manipulations. During the first visit, chiropractors typically perform a physical exam and take a health history, paying special attention to the spine and whether the patient has normal bone density.
People with lower levels of bone density, such as people with osteoporosiswould receive gentler treatments. The chiropractor typically uses his or her hands to apply controlled, rapid force to a damaged or injured joint, to allow the joint to move in a normal manner and reduce pain and inflammation, says Ray Tucka chiropractor in Blacksburg, Virginia, and the chairman of the board of the American Chiropractic Association.
One maneuver is the high-velocity cervical adjustment, in which the patient relaxes his or her head in the hands of the chiropractor, who quickly thrusts the head in one direction -- sometimes creating a cracking sound. Chiropractors can also conduct gentler, low-velocity cervical adjustments.
Carly Soda, 33, a physician's assistant who lives in a Philadelphia suburb, is a big fan of the high-velocity cervical manipulation. Five years ago, Soda went to a chiropractor when she thought she was suffering from carpal tunnel syndrome.
By then, a variety of medical treatments had failed. The chiropractor analyzed her problem as stemming from a pinched nerve in her neck and conducted a high-velocity neck manipulation. After the treatment, "my hands were better in a week, percent," Soda says. Chiropractors also treat some patients for headaches that are caused by nerve irritation that refers pain to the head, Tuck says. Treatment can alleviate these headaches by reducing nerve irritation.
Benefits Some studies have shown chiropractic care to be beneficial. In a study published in Spine Journal inresearchers evaluated the chiropractic treatment experiences of people with back-related pain or sciatica, a condition in which a pinched nerve in the lower spine causes leg pain.
The study care was rated worthwhile by 87 percent of the participants. Another study published in the British Medical Journal in evaluated patients with neck pain who were randomly assigned to receive treatment that involved spinal manipulations, physiotherapy mainly exercise and care from a general practitioner, which involved primarily counseling, education and prescription drugs. The people in the study kept cost diaries for one year. The study found that manual therapy was more effective and less costly than physiotherapy or care by a general practitioner.
The American Chiropractic Association says neck manipulation procedures are quite safe. Todd Sinetta chiropractor in New York City and author of the book "3 Weeks To A Better Back," says he has conducted cervical manipulations for 20 years without adverse effects to his patients. A study published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal found the risk of a stroke following a cervical chiropractic treatment to be one per 5.
Even low risks are unacceptable, several physicians say, adding that they would advise patients to stay away from high-velocity neck manipulations. Chiropractic manipulations of the thoracic and lumbar spine areas are safe, because chiropractors cannot create enough force to damage those regions, says Dr. There is not as much robust musculature there," Jahavery says. When the scammer — who apparently had never heard of the television series Star Trek — asked for his passport details, "Kirk" sent a copy of a fake passport with a photo of Star Trek's Captain Kirk, hoping the scammer would attempt to use it and get arrested.
The time between the funds appearing as available to the account holder and the check clearing is known as the "float", during which time the bank could technically be said to have floated a loan to the account holder to be covered with the funds from the bank clearing the check.
Even after it has cleared, funds may be reclaimed much later if fraud is discovered. The check given to the victim is typically counterfeit but drawn on a real account with real funds in it.
With correct banking information a check can be produced that looks genuine, passes all counterfeit tests, and may initially clear the paying account if the account information is accurate and the funds are available. However, whether it clears or not, it eventually becomes apparent either to the bank or the account holder that the check is a forgery.
This can be as little as three days after the funds are available if the bank supposedly covering the check discovers the check information is invalid, or it could take months for an account-holder to notice a fraudulent debit.
It has been suggested that in some cases a genuine check, from the payer's account, is issued with intent to defraud: Regardless of the amount of time involved, subject to certain limits, once the cashing bank is alerted the check is fraudulent, the transaction is reversed and the victim's account debited; this may lead to it being put in overdraft.
Western Union and MoneyGram wire transfers[ edit ] A central element of advance-fee fraud is the transaction from the victim to the scammer must be untraceable and irreversible.
Otherwise, the victim, once they become aware of the scam, can successfully retrieve their money and alert officials who can track the accounts used by the scammer. Wire transfers via Western Union and MoneyGram are ideal for this purpose. International wire transfers cannot be cancelled or reversed, and the person receiving the money cannot be tracked. Other non-cancellable forms of payment include postal money orders and cashier's checks, but wire transfer via Western Union or MoneyGram is more common.
Anonymous communication[ edit ] Since the scammer's operations must be untraceable to avoid identification, and because the scammer is often impersonating someone else, any communication between the scammer and his victim must be done through channels that hide the scammer's true identity.
The following options in particular are widely used. Web-based email[ edit ] Because many free email services do not require valid identifying information, and also allow communication with many victims in a short span of time, they are the preferred method of communication for scammers. Some services go so far as to mask the sender's source IP address Gmail being a common choicemaking the scammer more difficult to trace to the country of origin.
While Gmail does indeed strip headers from emails, it is, in fact, possible to trace an IP address from such an email. Scammers can create as many accounts as they wish, and often have several at a time. In addition, if email providers are alerted to the scammer's activities and suspend the account, it is a trivial matter for the scammer to simply create a new account to resume scamming.
The fraudster impersonates associates, friends, or family members of the legitimate account owner in an attempt to defraud them. Fax transmissions[ edit ] Facsimile machines are commonly used tools of business, whenever a client requires a hard copy of a document. Thus, scammers posing as business entities often use fax transmissions as an anonymous form of communication.
This is more expensive, as the prepaid phone and fax equipment cost more than email, but to a skeptical victim it can be more believable. SMS messages[ edit ] Abusing SMS bulk senders such as WASPsscammers subscribe to these services using fraudulent registration details and paying either via cash or stolen credit card details. They then send out masses of unsolicited SMSes to victims stating they have won a competition, lottery, reward, or like an event, and they have to contact somebody to claim their prize.
Typically the details of the party to be contacted will be an equally untraceable email address or a virtual telephone number. These messages may be sent over a weekend when the staff at the service providers are not working, enabling the scammer to be able to abuse the services for a whole weekend.
Even when traceable, they give out long and winding procedures for procuring the reward real or unreal and that too with the impending huge cost of transportation and tax or duty charges.
A recent mid innovation is the use of a Premium Rate 'call back' number instead of a website or email in the SMS. On calling the number, the victim is first reassured that 'they are a winner' and then subjected to a long series of instructions on how to collect their 'winnings'.
During the message, there will be frequent instructions to 'ring back in the event of problems'. The call is always 'cut off' just before the victim has the chance to note all the details. Some victims call back multiple times in an effort to collect all the details. The scammer thus makes their money out of the fees charged for the calls.
Telecommunications relay services[ edit ] Many scams use telephone calls to convince the victim that the person on the other end of the deal is a real, truthful person. The scammer, possibly impersonating a person of a nationality, or gender, other than their own, would arouse suspicion by telephoning the victim. The scammer may claim they are deaf, and that they must use a relay service.
The victim, possibly drawn in by sympathy for a disabled caller, might be more susceptible to the fraud. FCC regulations and confidentiality laws require operators to relay calls verbatim and adhere to a strict code of confidentiality and ethics. Thus, no relay operator may judge the legality and legitimacy of a relay call and must relay it without interference. This means the relay operator may not warn victims, even when they suspect the call is a scam.
In a common strategy, they bind their overseas IP address to a router or server located on US soil, allowing them to use US-based relay service providers without interference. TRS is sometimes used to relay credit card information to make a fraudulent purchase with a stolen credit card. In many cases however, it is simply a means for the con artist to further lure the victim into the scam.
Invitation to visit the country[ edit ] Sometimes, victims are invited to a country to meet government officials, an associate of the scammer, or the scammer themselves. Some victims who travel are instead held for ransom. Scammers may tell a victim that they do not need a visaor that the scammers will provide one;  if the victim does this, the scammers have the power to extort money from the victim.
According to a U. State Department report, over fifteen persons were murdered between and in Nigeria after following through on advance-fee frauds. Internet fraudList of email scamsand phishing There are many variations on the most common stories, and also many variations on the way the scam works. Some of the more commonly seen variants involve employment scamslottery scamsonline sales and rentals, and romance scams.
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Many scams involve online sales, such as those advertised on websites such as Craigslist and eBayor property rental. This article cannot list every known and future type of advanced fee fraud or scheme; only some major types are described. Additional examples may be available in the external links section at the end of this article. The scammer sends a letter with a falsified company logo. The job offer usually indicates exceptional salary and benefits, and requests that the victim needs a "work permit" for working in the country, and includes the address of a fake "government official" to contact.
The "government official" then proceeds to fleece the victim by extracting fees from the unsuspecting user for the work permit and other fees. A variant of the job scam recruits freelancers seeking work, such as editing or translation, then requires some advance payment before assignments are offered.
Many legitimate or at least fully registered companies work on a similar basis, using this method as their primary source of earnings. Some modelling and escort agencies tell applicants that they have a number of clients lined up, but that they require some sort of prior "registration fee", usually paid in by an untraceable method, e.
The scammer contacts the victim to interest them in a "work-at-home" opportunity, or asks them to cash a check or money order that for some reason cannot be redeemed locally. In one cover story, the perpetrator of the scam wishes the victim to work as a "mystery shopper", evaluating the service provided by MoneyGram or Western Union locations within major retailers such as Wal-Mart.
Later the check is not honoured and the bank debits the victim's account. Schemes based solely on check cashing usually offer only a small part of the check's total amount, with the assurance that many more checks will follow; if the victim buys into the scam and cashes all the checks, the scammer can steal a lot in a very short time.
Bogus job offers[ edit ] More sophisticated scams advertise jobs with real companies and offer lucrative salaries and conditions with the fraudsters pretending to be recruitment agents. A bogus telephone or online interview may take place and after some time the applicant is informed that the job is theirs.
To secure the job they are instructed to send money for their work visa or travel costs to the agent, or to a bogus travel agent who works on the scammer's behalf.
No matter what the variation, they always involve the job seeker sending them or their agent money, credit card or bank account details. Instead, their personal information is harvested during the application process and then sold to third parties for a profit, or used for identity theft. The attendees are then made to assist to a conference where a scammer will use elaborate manipulation techniques to convince the attendees to purchase products, in a similar manner to the catalog merchant business model, as a hiring requisite.
Quite often, the company lacks any form of the physical catalog to help them sell products e. When "given" the job, the individual is then asked to promote the scam job offer on their own.
They are also made to work the company unpaid as a form of "training".
They then advertise job offers on Job Search sites. The job hunter will then apply for the position with a resume. The person applying for the position will get a message almost instantly from a common email account such as "Yahoo", asking for credentials. The scammer will sometimes request that the victim has an "Instant Messenger" chat to obtain more information. The scammer guarantees employment, usually through automated computer programs that have a certain algorithm, with "canned responses" in broken English.
At the "Instant Messenger" stage it is usually too late and the process has already begun. If the victim questions the integrity of the process, the computer program may call them a "scammer" and can be quite vulgar. Quite often the fraudulent negotiables are still sent to the address on the victim's resume, even after the fake online rant.
The scammer sends the victim fraudulent negotiables, assuring them that they get to keep part of the funds. They will expect the victim to send the remainder to various parties that they specify, under the guise that they are legitimate business contacts.
This is a money laundering scheme, as the victim becomes a pawn in the filtering process.
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The process continues until the victim catches on, or even gets caught. As the representative, the job involves receiving cash payments and depositing payments received from "customers" into one's account and remitting the rest to the overseas business bank account. This is essentially money laundering. Lottery scam The lottery scam involves fake notices of lottery wins, although the intended victim has not entered the lottery.
In addition to harvesting this information, the scammer then notifies the victim that releasing the funds requires some small fee insurance, registration, or shipping. Once the victim sends the fee, the scammer invents another fee. The fake check technique described above is also used. Fake or stolen checks, representing a part payment of the winnings, being sent; then a fee, smaller than the amount received, is requested.
The bank receiving the bad check eventually reclaims the funds from the victim.